List of Abbreviations

AWSB: Athi Water Services Board

CWSB: Coast Water Services Board

FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation (UN)

GIS: Geographic information system

GIZ: German International Cooperation (Gesellschaft für Internationale Cooperation)

GPS: Global positioning system

IDP: Internally displaced person

ISP: Informal service provider

KDHS: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KNBS)

KNBS: Kenya National Bureau of Statistics

KSh: Kenyan Shilling

l/c/d: Litres per capita per day

LIA: Low income area (urban)

LVNWSB: Lake Victoria North Water Services Board

LVSWSB: Lake Victoria South Water Services Board

MDGs: Millennium Development Goals

MoPHS: Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation

MWI: Ministry of Water and Irrigation

NGO: Non-governmental organisation

NZOWASCO: Nzoia Water Services Company

RVWSB: Rift Valley Water Services Board

NWSB: Northern Water Services Board

TAWSB: Tanathi Water Services Board

TWSB: Tana Water Services Board

VIP: Ventilated Improved Pit latrine

WASREB: Water Services Regulatory Board

WSB: Water Services Board

WSP: Water Service Provider

WSS: Water supply and sanitation

WWSC: Western Water and Sewerage Company

WSTF: Water Services Trust Fund

Exchange Rate

€ 1.00 = KSh 103 (Average exchange rate January 2009 - August 2010)

References Used

KNBS (August 2010) 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census, Volume I A; Population by Administrative Units, Kenya national Bureau of Statistics, Nairobi, Kenya.

Long, J.F., Rain, D.R. and Ratcliffe, M.R. (June 15, 2001) Population Density vs. Urban Population: Comparative GIS Studies in China, India, and the United States, Population Division, U. S. Census    Bureau, Washington, D.C. , United States.

Ministry of Lands (undated ) Draft National Land Policy, National Land Policy Secretariat, P. O. Box 45025, Nairobi,      Kenya.

Odhiambo, E.A. and Ndilinge, B. M. (2005?) Census Cartography; The Kenyan Experience. Ministry of Planning and National Development, Department of Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 30266-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Urbanization. (2008) Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite.  Chicago: Encyclopædia    Britannica.

Winslow, C.-E. A. (1920) “The Untilled Fields of Public Health,” Science, n.s. 51 (1920), p. 23.

WHO/UNICEF (2010) Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water – 2010 Update ; WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation ; ISBN 978 92 4 156395 6.

Water Services Regulatory Board (2008) Drinking Water Quality and Effluent Monitoring Guideline. WASREB, Nairobi, Kenya.

Water Services Trust Fund (2011) Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards (Discussion Paper), PART I: Background Document, Nairobi, Kenya.

Water Services Trust Fund (2011) Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards (Discussion Paper), PART II: Definitions of Adequate Access and Coverage, Nairobi, Kenya.

List of Relevant Websites:

Audience Dialogue, Glossary of Research Methods:

Blue Egg (all things being Eco):


Central European University 1999:

Constitution of Kenya:

Energy foundation:

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics:

FAO: (all about Kenya):

The Free Library:


World Plumbing Council Working Group 2008:


WHO (2006) Guidelines for Drinking water quality:

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme: (JMP):

Water Services Trust Fund:

General Reference Websites and DVD-ROM-based Sources:

Babylon Dictionary:

The Free Dictionary:



Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite (2011) Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica (DVD-ROM version)

Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary (embedded in Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite (2011)