1: a count of the
population and a property evaluation in early Rome 2:
a complete enumeration of a population ; specific: a
periodic governmental enumeration of population. (Source:
Provinces, Districts, Divisions, Locations, Sub-Locations and
Kenya Census: “Kenya has been
taking a census every ten years since 1948 the last one was taken in
1999. The information collected includes: demographic, education,
labour, housing and sanitation. The administrative hierarchy, which
ranges from Provinces, Districts, Divisions,
Locations, Sub-location and Villages, is used to
divide the country into Enumeration Areas (EAs). All the units
are coded and given unique identifiers for purposes of data
processing from the province to the smallest unit, the EA. In the
office the maps are drafted, at the sub location level. A sub
location may have several EAs depending on its population. The maps
are then printed and dispatched to the districts for verification.
During the inter-censal period the cartographers embark on production
of thematic maps, the main product being the Population Atlas. The
Atlas together with other census publications is disseminated at
Provincial level.” (Source: Odhiambo, E. A. and Ndilinge, B.M.)
Enumeration Area: This is a
designated area with an average of about 100 households, but may vary
from 50 to 149 households depending on the population density,
terrain, and/or vastness of the area concerned. An Enumeration Area
(E.A.) may be a village, group of villages or part of a village, and
is so delineated to be conveniently covered by an enumerator.”
(Source: KNBS, August 2010; 4).
2.1Locations and Sub-Locations
Location: Is a type of administrative region in Kenya. Locations are a fourth level Subdivision below Provinces, Districts and Divisions. Locations are further subdivided into Sub-locations . As of 1999 Census there were 2,427 locations and 6,612 sub-locations in Kenya.
Each Division in Kenya is divided into some Locations. Locations do often, but not necessarily, coincide with electoral wards. Locations are usually named after their central villages/towns. Many larger towns consist of several Locations. Each Location has a Chief, appointed by the state. (Source: Wikipedia, search; “Kenya, Location”).
The constitution of Kenya creates 47 county governments. This number is based on the delineation of administrative districts as created under the Provinces and Districts Act of 1992. (Source: www.softkenya.com/county/).
Devolution to the county governments will only be autonomous in implementation of distinct functions as listed in the Fourth Schedule (Part 2). This is in contrast with the Federal System in which Sovereignty is constitutionally divided between the Federal government and the States. The Kenyan Devolution system still maintains a Unitary Political Concept as a result of distribution of functions between the two levels of government under the Fourth schedule and also as result of Article 192 which gives the president the power to suspend a county government under certain conditions. A conflict of laws between the two levels of government is dealt with under Article 191 where National legislation will in some cases override County legislation. The relationship between the National Government and the Counties can be seen as that of a Principal and a limited autonomy Agent as opposed to an Agent and Agent relation in the Federal System. More checks and balances have been introduced as requirements for accountability of both levels of government. The Parliament (Senate and National Assembly) has much discretion on the budgetary allocations to the County Governments. Every Five years the Senate receives recommendations from the Commission of Revenue Allocation (Article 217) and a resolution is passed on the criteria for Revenue allocation.
The National Government is constitutionally barred from intruding with the county government role under the Fourth Schedule unless in certain cases which may require parliament approval Article 191 and 192. The National Government has a role to play in the County level by performing all the other functions that are not assigned to the County Government as listed on the Fourth Schedule (Part 1). (Source: Wikipedia, Search; “Constitution of Kenya”).
science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and
promoting health through
the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations,
public and private, communities and individuals" (1920, C.E.A.
is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based
The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or
as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance,
in the case of a pandemic).
Public health is typically divided into epidemiology, biostatistics
other important subfields.
focus of public health intervention is to prevent rather than treat a
disease through surveillance of
cases and the promotion of healthy behaviours. In addition to these
activities, in many cases treating a disease may be vital to
preventing it in others, such as during an outbreak of an infectious
washing, vaccination programs
and distribution of condoms are
examples of public health measures.
goal of public health is to improve lives through the prevention and
treatment of disease. The United Nations' World
Health Organization defines
health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social
well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
Wikipedia, search “public health”).
public health situation in many urban low income areas is poor. This
can be attributed to:
of safe water, adequate sanitation, drainage and waste collection
hygienic practices of residents.
of community health education and sensitization programmes.
of health facilities (clinics, hospitals, etc.). (Source:
3.1Urban and Rural
Urban area: Is an area
characterized by higher population density and vast human features in
comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities,
but the term is not commonly extended to rural
settlements such as villages
are created and further developed by the process of urbanization.
Measuring the extent of an urban area helps in analysing population
density and urban
sprawl, and in determining urban and rural populations. They vary
somewhat amongst different nations. European
countries define urbanized areas on the basis of urban-type land
use, not allowing any gaps of typically more than 200 meters, and
imagery instead of census blocks to determine the boundaries of
the urban area. In less developed countries, in addition to land use
and density requirements, a requirement that a large majority of the
population, typically 75%, is not engaged in agriculture and/or
fishing is sometimes used. (Source:
Wikipedia, search; “urban area”)
KNBS defines an urban area as
“Urban: Is an area with an
increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the
areas surrounding it and has a population of 2,000 and above. In this
definition, urban areas include the following: cities, Town Councils
and Urban Councils. …..The City of
Nairobi, Mombasa, all Municipalities, District Headquarters, all
towns and trading centres with a population of 2,000 persons or more
are designated as urban areas.” (Source: KNBS, August
“Rural: Is a large and
isolated area of an open country (in reference to open fields and not
forests, etc.), often with low population density.” (Source:
KNBS, August 2010; 5)
The process by which large numbers of
people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas,
The definition of what constitutes a
changes from time to time and place to place, but it is most usual to
explain the term as a matter of demographics. The United Nations has
recommended that countries regard all places with more than 20,000
inhabitants living close together as urban; but, in fact, nations
compile their statistics on the basis of many different standards.
The United States, for instance, uses “urban place” to mean any
locality where more than 2,500 people live. (Source: Wikipedia,
The rate of
population growth is the rate of natural increase combined with the
effects of migration. Thus a high rate of natural increase can be
offset by a large net out-migration, and a low rate of natural
increase can be countered by a high level of net in-migration.
Generally speaking, however, these migration effects on population
growth rates are far smaller than the effects of changes in fertility
and mortality. (Source: Encyclopædia Britannica, search;
growth: Is the main driving force of adverse impacts on the
environment. Increase in the number of people in an area leads to
higher pressure on the environment. More people need more space,
require more energy, water and natural resources which inevitably
leads to higher pressure on land, air, water and natural resources.
They also produce more waste which again has an impact on land,
waters and air. Rising economy and industry also contribute to
generating more pressure on the environment. (Source: Central
European University 1999;
decline: Can refer to the decline in population of any organism;
decline in humans: term to describe any great reduction in human
population; sometimes known as depopulation, population decline is
the reduction over time in a regions census; in former times due to
diseases, wars etc. nowadays due to sub-replacement fertility
(Source: Wikipedia, search; “population decline”).
Urban density: Is a term used
planning and urban
design to refer to the number of people inhabiting a given
As such it is to be distinguished from other measures of population
density. Urban density is considered an important factor in
understanding how cities function. Research related to urban density
occurs across diverse areas, including economics, health, innovation,
psychology and geography as well as sustainability (Source:
Wikipedia; search; “urban density”).
MajiData uses the following population
High population density:
5,001 persons per km2 and above
Medium population density:
between 401 and 5,000 persons/km2
Low population density:
400 persons/km2 or less
Areas with a population density are not
considered to be areas with urban characteristics.
Households, Dwellings, Plots and Blocks of Flats
Household: Those who dwell under the same roof and compose a family. A social unit composed of those living together in the same dwelling. (Source: Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary).
The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models. The term refers to all individuals who live in the same dwelling. In economics, a household is a person or a group of people living in the same residence. Most economic models do not address whether the members of a household are a family in the traditional sense. Government and policy discussions often treat the terms household and family as synonymous, especially in western societies where the nuclear family has become the most common family structure. In reality, there is not always a one-to-one relationship between households and families. (Source: Wikipedia, search; “household”).
Household (KNBS/KDHS definition): A household is defined as a person or a group of persons, related or unrelated, who live together and who share a common source of food. (Source: KNBS/KDHS 2010: 13).
Household (KNBS/Census): KNBS uses a slightly different definition for the Census: “Household: refers to a person or group of persons who reside in the same homestead/compound but not necessarily in the same dwelling unit. Have same cooking arrangements, and are answerable to the same household head. (KNBS, August 2010; 4).
Note: A household often forms a unit which has its own sources of income and set of expenditures. Members of such a unit tend to prepare and share the same food. This is why MajiData (plot and dwelling-level interviews) enquired about the number of kitchens or cooking places.
Dwelling: A shelter (as a house, flat or apartment) in which people (in most cases the members of a single household) live. (Source: Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary).
Dwelling: A dwelling refers to the specific shelter or residential unit occupied by one of more households. E.g. a servants’ quarter is a dwelling. (Source: MajiData).
Dwelling (KNBS): KNBS defines Dwelling Unit as follows: “This is a place of abode or residence occupied by one or more households, usually with a private entrance. There can be many dwelling units within a structure.” (Source: KNBS, August 2010; 4).
Plot: A small area of planted ground, a vegetable plot, a small piece of land in a cemetery. A measured piece of land: lot. (Source: Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary).
Within the framework of data collection, a plot refers to a demarcated piece of land in a peri-urban or low-cost area. Plots are usually demarcated with wall fences, hedges or by using other materials.
Land lot: In real estate, a lot is a tract or parcel of land owned or meant to be owned by some owner(s). A lot is essentially considered a parcel of real property in some countries or immovable property (meaning practically the same thing) in other countries. Possible owner(s) of a lot can be one or more person(s) or another legal entity, such as a company/corporation, organization, government, or trust. (Source: Wikipedia, search; “plot, land lot”).
1.4Blocks and Flats
1.4.1Block and Flat
Block: A line of row houses or integrated group of buildings.
Block: A large building divided into separate functional units (2): a line of row houses (3): a distinctive part of a building or integrated group of buildings. (Source: Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary).
Flat: An apartment (dwelling) on one floor in a block of flats. (Source: MajiData).
Block of flats: A block consulting of flats (multi-storied); a block consisting of a number of storeys and flats. (Source: MajiData).
Apartment building: A room or set of rooms fitted esp. with housekeeping facilities and usually leased as a dwelling. Or: a building containing several separate individual residential. (Source: Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary).
1.5Homestead & Compound
Homestead: The home and adjoining land occupied by a family. (Source: Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary).
Compound: A fenced or walled-in area containing a group of buildings and esp. residences. (Source: Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary).
According to KNBS:
Structure (KNBS): “Refers to a building used for the purposes of residential, business or any other activity. For census purposes, a structure is defines as a building used for dwelling and related activities. In rural areas most of the structures are to be found within the homestead, and contain one of more dwelling units. In urban areas a structure may contain several dwelling units, e.g. storeyed buildings.” (Source: KNBS, August 2010; 4).
1.7Housing: Permanent & Temporary Structures
Permanent and temporary structures (KNBS): “whether dwellings should be considered as permanent or temporary structures often depends on the types of construction materials used (especially the materials that were used to construct the walls). Where bricks, stones and concrete blocks are used, the structure can be considered to be permanent. If walls are made of corrugated iron sheets, timber, mud/poles the structures can be categorised as temporary.”(Source: KNBS, August 2010; 4).
Characteristics of Low Income Areas in Urban Settings
It is important to emphasise that low income areas, including urban slums, differ markedly from each other. Whereas some areas are characterised by their high population mobility, high crime levels and a lack of social cohesion, others can be described as relatively harmonious, safe and stable. The (long) list of characteristics of urban low income areas, therefore, should be regarded as an attempt to present the main features that set these urban areas apart from rural settings and from the middle and high income urban areas:
3.1Population, Layout and Infrastructure
Often high population densities.
Many low income areas have not been constructed according to a proper layout plan.
Plots usually accommodate more than one household (in some informal urban areas a single plot can accommodate up to 35 households).
Most low income areas are located on marginalised land (areas with a high water table or situated on top of hills, etc.).
Most low income areas have poor infrastructure (e.g. roads, drainage) and services (e.g. solid waste collection).
Large urban slums are made up of several “villages”.
Most urban slums are ethnically mixed.
Villages within urban slums often have a more ethically uniform population.
Many residents lack security of tenure.
The areas are either planned or unplanned. Planned (formal) low income areas are mostly found on Government or Council Land.
Many residents are renting their accommodation.
Many tenants live in flats which they share with other tenants. Quite often the landlord also resides on the plot.
Landowners often lack the financial resources to construct proper houses and to invest in proper water supply and sanitation.
Land is object of speculation of power-brokers, who are, in many cases, not really interested in developing it.
Obtaining land for the construction of WSS infrastructure (such as water kiosks and public sanitation facilities) is usually a challenge.
Most of these settlements are on marginalized land (flood prone, steep hills, etc.)
Land tenure patterns in urban low income areas differ from region to region:
Communal land in North Eastern Kenya.
Private land in Western Kenya (e.g. Kisumu).
Council and Government land in Nairobi.
3.3Type of Housing
Housing in informal settlements, can either be permanent or temporal.
The quality of housing often depends on the land tenure. Residents who own the land they occupy tend to put up permanent structures whilst residents who do not own the land tend to put up temporal structures. In Kisumu, for example, a large proportion of residents living in low income areas have title deeds which explains why these areas tend to have a mixture of permanent and temporary houses. Low income areas in Kisumu are either found on privately owned land, Trust Land, or on land owned by the Council. In rural towns some settlements are located on Trust Land but further investigations often reveal that titles to the land (Trust Land) have been issued to other people without the knowledge of the current occupants. (Source: MajiData).
3.4Water Supply and Sanitation
Areas lack or have limited access to basic services such as safe water and sanitation.
The existing infrastructure is usually in poor technical condition, not user-friendly and poorly managed.
Where water supply and sanitation (WSS) services are available they are usually shared. Residents use public stand pipes and shared ablution blocks.
In areas with very high population densities using flying toilets is a common practice.
Residents rely on informal water and sanitation service providers (water resellers).
The price residents have to pay for water is not regulated.
The quality of water fetched from sources within the area (boreholes, protected open wells (etc.) is poor.
Lack of space (due to poor planning and high population densities) needed for the provision of basic infrastructure/services such as roads, safe water, adequate sanitation, drainage and solid waste management. (Source: MajiData).
Most residents (but not all residents) have low income levels.
Unemployment levels and youth unemployment levels in particular, are high.
Many residents are active in the informal sector of the local economy and derive an income from small-scale businesses, trade and casual labour (piece work).
Residents in formal employment are mainly Government or Council employees, shop attendants, security guards, drivers, (etc.) with low incomes.
Many urban slums are characterised by a marked pattern of economic differentiation. Although many residents can only be described as being poor or very poor, the area also may have a class of more well-to-do local entrepreneurs, landlords, etc.
High teenage pregnancy levels.
High levels of alcohol and drug abuse.
High levels of domestic violence (some areas).
Crime levels (robberies, theft, vandalism, etc.) are high (some areas).
Residents lack information on many relevant issues and as a result many do not know their rights. (Source: MajiData).
Low income areas often lack social cohesion. This can often be attributed to the mobility of their residents. In informal settlements social cohesion tends to be higher than in planned low income settlements.
Community participation in low income areas is often lacking.
Strong presence, in some urban low income areas of civil society organizations and registered groups. (Source: MajiData).
Landownership and Land Use
2.1Public, Community and Private Land
Public, Community and Private Land:According to the Draft National Lands Policy, the Government shall:” Designate all land in Kenya as Public, Community and Private;” (Source: Ministry of Lands, Draft National Lands Policy: 19).
Trust Land: According to the Kenyan Constitution Trust Land is:
“Land which is in the special areas (meaning the areas of land the boundaries of which where specified First Schedule to the Trust Land Act as in force on 31st May, 1963), and which was on 31st May, 1963 vested in the Trust Land Board by virtue of any law or registered in the name of the Trust Land Board.
The areas of land that were known before 1st June, 1963 as Special Reserves, Temporary Special Reserves, Special Leasehold Areas and Special Settlement Areas and the boundaries of which were described respectively in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Schedules to the Crown Lands Ordinance as in force on 31st May, 1963, the areas of land that were on 31st May, 1963 communal reserves by virtue of a declaration under section 58 of that Ordinance, the areas of land referred to in section 59 of that Ordinance as in force on 31st May, 1963 and the areas of land in respect of which a permit to occupy was in force on 31st May, 1963 under section 62 of that Ordinance.
Land situated outside the Nairobi Area (as it was on 12th December, 1964) the freehold title to which is registered in the name of a county council or the freehold title to which is vested in a county council by virtue of an escheat: Provided that Trust land does not include any estates, interests or rights in or over land situated in the Nairobi Area (as it was on 12th December, 1964) that on 31st May, 1963 were registered in the name of the Trust Land Board under the former Land Registration (Special Areas) Ordinance” (Source: Constitution of Kenya; http://kenya.rcbowen.com/constitution/chap9.html).
Public land: Comprises all land owned by the Government and dedicated to a specified public use or made available for private uses at the discretion of the Government. (Source: MajiData).
Council owned land: Is public land which is allocated to local council for use by (the) public (e.g. to build schools, play fields etc.). (Source: MajiData).
Private land: Refers to land held by an individual or other entity under freehold or leasehold tenure. Community owned land. (Source: Ministry of Lands, Draft National Lands Policy: 17).
Community land: Refers to land lawfully held, managed and used by a specific community. (Source: Ministry of Lands, Draft National Lands Policy: 15).
Legal area: The area is legally recognized by the local authorities. (Source: MajiData).
Illegal area: The area is not officially recognized by the local authorities. (Source: MajiData).
Types of Low Income Areas
According to the Draft National Lands Policy:
“The essence of ‘informal’ or ‘spontaneous’ or ‘squatter’ settlements is that it is without secure tenure and/or is unplanned. The problems of ‘squatters’ and ‘informal’ settlements continue to present a challenge for development in Kenya. A large proportion of Kenya’s population has no decent homes, and live as ‘squatters’ or in slums and other squalid places. 79. To deal with the ‘squatters’ and informal settlements, the Government shall:
a) Create a regime of secondary land rights as a means of improving security in informal/spontaneous settlements;
b) Recognize and protect the rights of informal land occupiers and guarantee their security of tenure; and c) Establish a legal framework and put in place procedures for transferring unutilized land and land belonging to absentee landlords to ‘squatters’ and landless people. (Source: Ministry of Lands, Draft National Lands Policy: 19).
Informal settlements: These are settlements without formal or official tenure rights and/or settlements that are not in compliance with the relevant physical or land use planning requirements. The essence of ‘informal’ or ‘spontaneous’ or ‘squatter’ settlements is that it is without secure tenure and/or is unplanned (Source: Ministry of Lands, Draft National Lands Policy: 57).
Informal settlements: are often referred to as “slums” or “urban slums”. Their residents are called “slum dwellers” or “squatters”. Residents often depend on a small number of house/yard connections, springs and wells. Households residing on the same plot share pit latrines and in slums (such as Kibera in Nairobi) residents resort to flying toilets.
Most slums are un-planned, often illegal, urban settlements with high population densities, poor service levels, and low incomes associated with lack of social cohesion
The land occupied by the residents of these slums is owned by the Municipality, the Government or by private individuals. In some cases, the land was allocated to the squatters. For example, in Kipsonge area in Kitale, squatters have occupied the land for a number of decades. Most houses in slum areas are constructed with what might be labelled as temporary materials. Substandard housing in slum areas is considered to be the result of high poverty levels and/or insecurity of tenure.
The water supply and sanitation situation in most slums is poor. As far as water supply is concerned, residents often depend on a small number of house/yard connections, springs and wells. Households residing on the same plot share pit latrines and in slums (such as Kibera in Nairobi) residents resort to flying toilets.
Not surprisingly residents and local health experts mention the high incidence of water-related diseases such as typhoid.
Discussions with slum residents indicate that few households are able and willing to invest in house or yard connections. Most households are poor and simply lack the financial resources to invest in a house connection and to pay the monthly water bill. Others, who can afford, are not willing to invest in a house connection because of the insecurity of tenure.
Discussions with slum residents indicate that few households are able and willing to invest in house or yard connections. Most households are poor and simply lack the financial resources to invest in a house connection and to pay the monthly water bill. Others, who can afford, are not willing to invest in a house connection because of the insecurity of tenure.
Water kiosks are in many cases the most technically feasible and sustainable solution for these informal settlements. (Source: MajiData).
4.2Planned Areas with (Planned) Low Income Housing
Planned areas with (planned) low income housing:
Planned low income areas or estates with high population densities, dilapidated water supply and sanitation systems (e.g. Council and Government housing estates).
In many cities and towns there are formal (planned) low-cost housing estates which are owned by the Municipality or by other (parastal) organisations.1 The tenants occupying the flats (one estate may have up to 35 flats), either do not pay rent or the rent is deducted from the breadwinner’s salary (in case he or she works for the Municipality). Income levels of most families are very low.
In the past some of the estates in Kitale were supplied through water kiosks, but in most cases these kiosks were disconnected a number of years ago and the residents were told to apply for house or yard connections. This did not happen as residents (who seemed to be aware of the costs involved of acquiring a connection) lack the financial resources to pay for a connection and in most cases even lack the finances needed to pay the monthly water bill.
In Kitale and Naivasha many residents of such estates have to walk relatively long distances and fetch water at a relatively high price (KSh 3.00/20-litre container). 2
Only improving water supply would leave the problem of the dilapidated ablution blocks unaddressed. In many estates these ablution blocks are equipped with flush toilets linked to the sewer. In many cases these toilets are still being used (the sewer still flows) and the water for flushing is fetched from nearby springs or taps. In the rainy season rainwater is used for the same purpose. (Source: MajiData).
4.3Planned Areas with (Planned) Low Income Housing
Informal housing in planned residential areas:
Informal housing in planned urban areas where plot owners have title deeds. Sometimes the plots with informal housing constitute small pockets which are surrounded by properly constructed homes or commercial properties.
In many cities and towns, low-income informal housing can be found in planned areas where individuals or organisations hold title deeds to land or where land is owned by the Government. Officially land has to be developed in accordance with the plans and bylaws of the Municipality. As the political will to enforce these bylaws is often lacking, many landlords have taken the opportunity to ignore existing housing guidelines and standards and to develop cheap sub-standard housing for families with low incomes In most cases landlords have invested in compounds that consist of flats which are rented out. Many houses are made of clay and other temporary building materials.3
Sub-standard/informal housing is found in almost all sections of cities and towns like Mombasa, Kitale, Webuye and Bungoma. Most flats are occupied by low-income households.4
The non-enforcement of bylaws and building requirements and regulations explains why proper housing structures (homes, flats, etc.) are often surrounded by sub-standard housing and why small-scale industries are found in residential areas. In other words, there often exists a discrepancy between the existing development plans and what can be found “on the ground”.5 In these areas the pattern of social and economic differentiation is marked: Poor households live amidst wealthier residents. Poverty is not confined to specific areas.
Water supply in the compounds (plots) varies. Some landlords have invested in yard taps and VIPs and even in indoor plumbing. A significant proportion of landlords, however, lack the financial resources or are unwilling to invest in proper water supply and sanitation for their tenants.
Some yard connections are equipped with a water meter but many connections remain unmetered.
In many compounds tenants have to share a single yard tap. Access to the yard tap is in most cases restricted to the tenants. Some landlords do not want to operate their yard tap as a kind of informal water kiosk as they already face difficulties ensuring that their tenants pay their rent (which includes the water bill).
In Kitale there are estates where water is rationed by most landlords.6 A considerable number of un-metered yard taps have been disconnected by the Company due to non-payment of water bills.
The sale of water to neighbours mainly occurs at un-metered yard taps.7 WSPs, therefore, should consider supplying these areas, especially where there are large numbers of low-income compounds, through water kiosks. (Source: MajiData).
An urban sub-centre can be defined as a relatively small urban centre, which is situated at some distance from the main town.
Most sub-centres and large rural centres have a small commercial centre and socio-economic infrastructure (health centre, one or more schools, a market.
Most sub-centres and many large rural centres are linked to the electricity grid and many sub centres are found along main tarmac roads (for example, Bukembe which is situated along the Webuye – Bungoma road).
The water supply situation in many sub-centres is not good 8 since they may not be connected to existing piped systems. Some of these sub-centres are potential kiosk areas. It should be noted, however, that some centres are not yet connected to the supply network. (Source: MajiData).
4.5Large Rural Centres with Urban Characteristics and Low Income Housing
Large Rural Centres with Urban Characteristics and Low Income Housing:
A large rural centre can be defined as a large settlement located in a rural setting. The size of the population and the population density render urban water supply solutions (hand pumps etc. are not suitable).
In large rural centres, the majority of the population derive their income from farming activities. Some residents may work as casual labourers at nearby commercial farms or large farming estates (e.g. large tea or sugar cane estates). Some of these centres are unplanned and the high population density is often explained by the lack of land for extension.
Water supply and sanitation service levels are often poor and residents often use sources such as hand pumps, boreholes, protected and unprotected wells and springs. Some of these centres even lack the land required for the provision of basic social and economic services. (Source: MajiData).
4.6Urban IDP Camps/Settlements
Urban IDP Camps/Settlements:
In some towns, such as Kitale in Western Kenya, there are a number of well-established internally displaced persons (IDP) settlements. These settlements are characterised by high population densities and informal housing (houses and huts constructed with branches, plastics and other available materials). Income levels in these settlements are usually very low and the WSS situation is often very poor. (Source: MajiData).
Peri-Urban areas: Many peri urban areas in Kenya share the following characteristics:
Low population densities (average distances between dwellings usually range between 30 and 200 metres).
Farming is the main economic activity.
Housing patterns: Farms, high-cost housing (villas) and compounds/plots with flats.
Residents fetch water at springs, protected wells, unprotected wells and hand pumps.
Most residents own their house.
In most cases water is fetched free of charge.
Water supply is not really considered to be a problem.
Residents use pit latrines and VIPs.
Income levels are relatively high (when compared with informal settlements).
In many ways it would be more appropriate to label these areas as semi-rural areas.
Water kiosks should, therefore, not be considered as appropriate water supply options for many peri-urban areas. Peri-urban residents either prefer house connections (especially residents living in high-cost housing) or tend to be relatively satisfied with the water sources they currently use. Kiosks would be the wrong solution for the peri-urban areas because there is insufficient demand for kiosk water to render the kiosks sustainable. In peri-urban areas water kiosks do not contribute to the revenue base of the Company and only increase overall maintenance costs. It is unlikely that kiosk operators can be found who are willing to operate isolated kiosks without customers. (Source: MajiData).
An urban “village” is often a part of a larger urban informal settlement. For example, “Kosovo” is just one of the villages found within the larger Mathare slum in Nairobi. In most cases “villages” have their own boundaries and social organisation. Many community-based organisations are organised at village level. (Source: MajiData).
1 Many of these estates have centrally located ablution blocks linked to septic tanks.
2 Many residents in Kitale would prefer to have their old and abandoned kiosks rehabilitated and re-commissioned. According to residents, paying for water on a daily basis is preferred by households with low and/or irregular incomes. Even if kiosk water is more expensive, the fact that the household can pay a relatively small amount, just to satisfy the needs of that particular day or the next day, provides the household the much needed flexibility.
3 All plots (even after a sub-division exercise) have been surveyed and are usually accessible as all roads and pathways are owned by the Municipality.
4 Housing cannot always be used as a poverty indicator. Some urban residents living in informal housing prefer to invest their income in their house in the village and in their farming enterprise. When working in town, they do not bother to look for proper accommodation. Strong ties with the rural areas and lack of land in the urban areas, may also explain why only few households living in informal structures located in planned urban areas are engaged in urban gardening.
5 According to the Town Clerk of Webuye there is no proper coordination between developers, landlords and the Municipal Council.
6 One landlord in Sango, an area in Webuye, closed (December 2006) his yard tap at 08.00hrs not opening it before 17.00hrs. In other areas the rationing system introduced by the Water Service Provider (NZOWASCO) assisted landlords in the management of their yard tap.
7 A targeted metering programme is, therefore, likely to have an impact upon the water supply situation of households which lack direct access to a yard tap.
8 Matete (near Webuye), for example, used to be supplied by the Webuye distribution network, but was disconnected a number of years ago. In response to the poor water supply situation, households and institutions have managed to develop alternatives. Some schools have invested in rainwater harvesting installations or hand pumps, health centres have sunk boreholes and households depend on springs, as well as on protected and unprotected wells. Most (if not all) sub-centres along the main tarmac roads are supplied by the WSP (NZOWASCO). The number of domestic connections is, however, relatively low. Residents of the sub-centres along the Webuye-Bungoma road, who do consume water from the Matisi waterworks, complained (2006) about the poor quality of their piped water.
for water and sanitation service provision is in the hands of Water
Services Boards. However, they are not required to provide services
directly - they can delegate them to commercially oriented public
enterprises, the so called Water
Service Providers (WSPs).
Service provision is regulated by Service
(SPAs) to ensure compliance with the standards on quality, service
levels and performance established by WASREB. (Source:
Area: Area within which the Water Service Provider (WSP) is
authorised to operate.
Water Services Board (WSB)
a result of sector reforms, responsibility for water and sanitation
service provision has been devolved to eight regionalWater
Services Boards (WSBs):
Athi (which serves the capital Nairobi), Coast, Tana, Lake Victoria
North, Lake Victoria South, Northern, Rift Valley Water Services
Board, and since 2008, Tanathi Water Services Board. Water Services
Boards are responsible for asset management, which is, for the
development and rehabilitation of water and sewerage facilities, for
investment planning and implementation.
The coverage definitions for water
supply and sanitation, presented in this section, have been developed
in order to calculate area coverage rates. The Kenyan Water
Sector is currently (May 2011) developing definitions of
(sustainable) access to safe water and sanitation as well as coverage
definitions. As soon as these definitions are available, MajiData
will adopt these definitions and update (recalculate) all its
coverage data. (Source: MajiData).
Improved and Unimproved Sources of Water (JMP & WSTF)
Bottled water is considered to
be improved by JMP only when the household uses water from an
improved source for cooking and personal hygiene.
Access to Improved Water Supply & Coverage
improved water supply:
the distance between the dwellings
and the public or communal water outlet (e.g. kiosk) does not exceed
500 metres (walking distance),
water is supplied by a licensed
WSP [i.e. a Provider with a valid Service Provision Agreement
water quality is monitored and
measured according to the frequency1
required by the Regulator and if it meets the standards set by
the water pressure measured at the
tap is at least 17 litres per minute,
the area is supplied at least 6
the kiosk is supplied and open to
customers (business hours) at least 6 hours/day,
the tariff is pro-poor and
approved by the Regulator,
the water outlet/facility meets
the technical standards set by the sector,
then the following number of persons
can be said to have adequate access to safe water supplied by the
following water supply outlets/facilities:
Type of connection
No. of Persons adequately served
This is the estimated number of people using a
Yard tap (one tap)
Figure based on average plot population size
Public stand post
Equipped with 1 tap
Improved public stand posts only
Prepaid public stand post
Equipped with 1 tap
Improved prepaid public stand posts only
Water kiosk (closed
Equipped with 3 taps
Assuming a consumption of 8 l/c/d
A commercial or institutional connection (etc.)
considering water kiosks only:
pressure at the tap is 15 litres per minute,
is equipped with 3 taps and
a full 20-litre container
contains 22 litres of water.
If we assume
litres of water/minute can be supplied by the kiosk which amounts
to 123 full 20-litre containers/hour (approximately 2,706
wastage is 3% (= 81 litres/hour), which means 2,625 litres of
water/hour can be fetched at the kiosk (= 119 full 20-litre
containers = 2 containers per minute).
required to place and remove containers on the fetching bay is 10
seconds/container. This means that approximately 90
containers/hour can be fetched at the kiosk (= 1,980 litres).
per capita consumption is 8 litres.
There are no peak demand hours.
If a kiosk is
to adequately serve 1,200 residents, then:
persons can be served/hour.
The kiosk needs to be open at
least 4.8 hours/day to serve 1,200 customers (residents).
E.g. the number of samples per parameter in the network for an
annual water production of < 240,000 m3: bacteriological 12/year,
residual chlorine 48/year). (Source:
WASREB 2008: 14).
Water Supply Sources & Outlets
water: Water supplied through a water distribution network.
(properly and poorly designed)
Kiosk: A structure where everybody can buy water from an
operator. A water kiosk can be closed (like a small shop) or
designed and constructed water kiosk is a kiosk made of
concrete or bricks with a roof, fetching bay and proper drainage.
designed and constructed water kiosk is, for example, a
kiosk made of iron sheets or a kiosk made of concrete/bricks without
a fetching bay and proper drainage.
or individual tap/ connection
house, private or individual tap/connection: A water outlet,
located within the yard or house, which is owned (or rented) by an
individual, family of household. Access is usually restricted to the
occupants of the yard, although some owners/users of private
connections sell water to neighbours (neighbourhood sales). (Source:
outlet where the members of a group (the user group of the communal
tap) can fetch water. In other words, access is restricted to the
members of the user group or local community. The water bill is
shared by the members of the group. (Source: MajiData).
4.7Public stand pipe
water outlet (one or more taps) where residents can fetch water free
to the public standpipe is not restricted; in principle everybody
has access. (Source:
tap or standpipe is
a public water point from which people can collect water. A
standpipe is also known as a public fountain or public tap. Public
standpipes can have one or more taps and are typically made of
brickwork, masonry or concrete.
stand pipe or yard tap
A public stand pipe or yard tap where
users can access water by using a token or smart card which is read
by an “intelligent water meter”. Users usually have to charge
their token before being able to fetch water. Data stored by the
meter can be sent to the office of the provider.
In most cases yard taps can only be
accessed by users that have a specific yard tap token (smart card).
Public stand pipes can be accessed by all users that have a public
stand pipe token or smart card. (Source: MajiData).
A hole bored
or drilled in the earth. A borehole can be drilled or bored to
supply water. (Source: Merriam Webster’s Collegiate
tube well or borehole is
a deep hole that has been driven, bored or drilled, with the purpose
of reaching groundwater supplies. Boreholes/tube wells are
constructed with casing, or pipes, which prevent the small diameter
hole from caving in and protects the water source from infiltration
by run-off water. Water is delivered from a tube well or borehole
through a pump, which may be powered by human, animal, wind,
electric, diesel or solar means. Boreholes/tube wells are usually
protected by a platform around the well, which leads spilled water
away from the borehole and prevents infiltration of run-off water at
the well head. (Source:
(protected and unprotected)
Yard well: A well which
was dug within the yard (by or for the occupants/ landlord). Access
is usually restricted to the occupants although in some areas well
water is given or sold to neighbours. (Source: MajiData).
lined, has a concrete superstructure and a cover. A diversion
storm-drainage may be constructed around the well to ensure that
flood and waste water is channelled away from the well.
protected dug well is
a dug well that is protected from runoff water by a well lining or
casing that is raised above ground level and a platform that diverts
spilled water away from the well. A protected dug well is also
covered, so that bird droppings and animals cannot fall into the
yard well lacks the protective features of a protected yard
well (see above).
dug well. This is a dug well for
which one of the following conditions is true: 1) the well is not
protected from runoff water; or 2) the well is not protected from
bird droppings and animals. If at least one of these conditions is
true, the well is unprotected.
Public well: Unlike a
yard well a public well is accessible to members of the public and is
usually located in a public space/ area. (Source: MajiData).
In addition to having the
technical features of the protected yard well, it often has a
perimeter fence to protect it against domestic and farm animals. The
fence also serves to facilitate cleaning and maintenance works and
to prevent damage (caused by trucks, carts, etc.). Watering of
animals is usually outside the perimeter fence.
these (above-mentioned) features. (Source: MajiData).
A source of supply: especially a source of water issuing from
the ground. (Source: Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary).
special areas where water sprout naturally from the ground. Springs
which are used by communities usually undergo changes which aim to
facilitate access (clearing of bushes, channelling of water and
drainage) and the fetching of water (the spring is deepened to allow
for dipping of containers).
characterised by a range of protective measures and features which
may include the planting of trees to prevent erosion (but not
eucalyptus trees), the construction of a perimeter fence, the
construction of a concrete spring wall with outlet pipes, the
construction of a fetching bay and the construction of a storage
reservoir. (Source: MajiData).
spring is typically protected from runoff, bird droppings and
animals by a "spring box", which is constructed of brick,
masonry, or concrete and is built around the spring so that water
flows directly out of the box into a pipe or cistern, without being
exposed to outside pollution. (Source:
those features and protective measures. (Source: MajiData).
to JMP, bottled wateris
considered to be improved
only when the household uses drinking-water from an improved source
for cooking and personal hygiene; where this information is not
available, bottled water is classified on a case-by-case basis.
the accumulating and storing, of rainwater for reuse, before it
reaches the aquifer.
It has been used to provide drinking
water for livestock,
water for irrigation,
as well as other typical uses given to water. Rainwater collected
from the roofs of houses, tents and local institutions, can make an
important contribution to the availability of drinking water. Water
collected from the ground, sometimes from areas which are especially
prepared for this purpose, is called stormwater
In some cases, rainwater may be the only available, or economical,
water source. Rainwater harvesting systems can be simple to
construct from inexpensive local materials, and are potentially
successful in most habitable locations. Roof rainwater can't be of
good quality and may require treatment before consumption. As
rainwater rushes from you're roof it may carry pollutants in it such
as the tiniest bit of mercury from coal burning buildings to bird or
dog faeces. Although some rooftop materials may produce rainwater
that is harmful to human health, it can be useful in flushing
toilets, washing clothes, watering the garden and washing cars;
these uses alone halve the amount of water used by a typical home.
Household rainfall catchment systems are appropriate in areas with
an average rainfall greater than 200 mm (7.9 in) per year,
and no other accessible water sources. Overflow from rainwater
harvesting tank systems can be used to refill aquifers in
a process called groundwater
though this is a related process, it must not be confused with
There are a number
of types of systems to harvest rainwater ranging from very simple to
the complex industrial systems. The rate at which water can be
collected from either system is dependent on the plan area of the
system, its efficiency, and the intensity of rainfall (i.e. annual
precipitation (mm per annum) x square meter of catchment area =
litres per annum yield). (Source:
Wikipedia, search; “rainwater harvesting”).
as a method for inducing, collecting, storing and conserving local
surface runoff for agriculture in arid and semiarid regions.
Rainfall has four
facets. Rainfall induces surface flow on the runoff area. At the
lower end of the slope, runoff collects in the basin area, where a
major portion infiltrates and is stored in the root zone. After
infiltration has ceased, then follows the conservation of the stored
water from a roof, driveway or other hard surface during a rainfall
and channelling it into a rain barrel or other container to be saved
for use in landscaping or in the household. Harvested rainwater is
sometimes used as potable water, too, but it typically must be
filtered and/or chemically treated first.
are used primarily in developing nations as a manually powered means
of bringing water to the surface from a borehole, rainwater tank or
well. The main types of hand pumps are the India Mark II, the India
Mark III, and the Afridev deep-well (30 - 40 m deep) pumps. (Source:
Containers: Kenyans use a variety of receptacles to fetch
their water. The most common one is the 20-litre plastic or metal
container (jerrycan). Other receptacles used are:
200-litre (oil) drum. (Source: MajiData).
Type of water payments
rate: The owners or users of a water outlet pay a fixed
monthly amount for the outlet they use and the water they fetch.
according to the meter readings: The monthly payments the
owners/users of a water outlet are charged with are calculated on
the basis of (monthly) meter readings (tariff multiplied by
per container: Many people who do not have direct
access to a water outlet have to buy their water at a water kiosk or
from a water reseller. Each time a receptacle is fetched a payment
has to be made. (Source: MajiData).
Definition of Sanitation
The hygienic means
health through prevention of
human contact with the hazards of wastes.
Hazards can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical
agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human
and animal faeces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage,
sullage, greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural wastes.
Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions
(e.g. sewerage and wastewater
simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by
personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple hand
generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the
safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a
major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known
to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households
and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the
maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage
collection and wastewater disposal.”
can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location, or strategy,
refers to the management of human faeces at the household level.
This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the
Development Goal on
the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited.
Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and Imhoff
the control of environmental factors that form links in disease
transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management,
water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise
and pollution control.
collection, storage, treatment and disposal of human excreta.
treatment and disposal of wastewater from households, institutions
of solid wastes.
storm water. (Source: MajiData).
Sanitation in urban low-income
areas: Mainly refers to the access to, and use of, excreta
and wastewater facilities and services that provide privacy while at
the same time ensuring a clean and healthful living environment both
at home and in the immediate neighbourhood of users. (Source:
The coverage definitions for water
supply sanitation have been developed in order to calculate area
coverage rates. The Kenyan Water Sector is currently (May 2011)
developing definitions of (sustainable) access to safe water and
sanitation as well as coverage definitions. As soon as these
definitions are available, MajiData will adopt these definitions and
update (recalculate) all its coverage data. (Source: MajiData).
plot-level sanitation facilities
One (1) improved household or
plot-level sanitation unit (door) can adequately provide
sanitation access to 10 persons provided they are living on
the same plot (within the same yard or compound) or on the same floor
(in case of a block of flats).
2.3Public sanitation (facilities)
population density is such that
the construction of dwelling or plot level sanitation is not
the distance between the dwellings
and the public sanitation facility or communal water outlet (e.g.
kiosk) does not exceed 500 metres (walking distance),
water is supplied by a licensed
WSP [i.e. a Provider with a valid Service Provision Agreement
the duration of a man’s
short call (including entering the facility, hand washing, paying
and leaving the facility) is 5 minutes, and only a urinal is
the duration of a man’s
long call (including entering the facility, hand washing, paying and
leaving the facility) is 10 minutes.
the duration of a woman’s
short & long call (including entering the facility, hand
washing, paying and leaving the facility) is 12 minutes.
the duration of a disabled
person’s visit to the toilet facility is 15 minutes,
the toilet is open and operational
(i.e. sufficient water of good quality is available) for at least 8
then the following types of toilet can
Public sanitation facility
Type of toilet:
Disabled persons toilet
If we accept the above-mentioned
assumptions, a public sanitation facility which is equipped with 3
urinals, 2 men’s toilets 3 women’s toilets and one toilet for the
disabled can adequately supply (36 + 15 + 12 + 4) 67 persons/hour and
536 persons per day. (Source: MajiData).
When considering the environmental and
public health objectives of (improved) sanitation, the entire
sanitation chain has to be analysed. In other words, a public
sanitation facility can only be considered an improved facility if
such activities as emptying, transport, disposal and sludge treatment
do not cause harm to the environment and to public health. (Source:
sanitation: For MDG monitoring, an
improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically
separates human excreta from human contact. The improved pit
latrine is seen as the basic sanitation facility most people use in
low income areas. (Source: MajiData).
Basic sanitation: A basic
sanitation system provides disposal facilities that can effectively
prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Such systems
do not, however, ensure that effluents are treated to remove harmful
substances before they are released into the environment. (Source:
Offsite and Onsite Sanitation
Offsite sanitation: The
removal and disposal from the yard (site) of sewage. (Source:
Onsite sanitation: The
(temporary) storage of sewage and waste water within the yard (site).
Sewage, Sewerage & Sewer
Is water-carried wastes, in either solution or suspension, that is
intended to flow away from a community. Also known
as wastewater flows,
sewage is the used water supply of the community. It is more than
99.9% pure water and is characterized by its volume or rate
of flow, its physical condition, its chemical constituents, and
the bacteriological organisms that it contains. Depending on their
origin, wastewater can be classed as sanitary, commercial,
industrial, agricultural or surface
runoff. (Source: Wikipedia,
sewer system : A
system of sewer pipes, also called sewerage, that is designed to
collect human excreta (faeces and urine) and wastewater and remove
them from the household environment. Sewerage systems consist of
facilities for collection, pumping, treating and disposing of human
excreta and wastewater (Source:
An artificial subterranean conduit to carry off sewage and sometimes
surface water (as from rainfall).
key component of the septic
system, a small-scale sewage
common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes provided by
local governments or private corporations. (Other components,
typically mandated and/or restricted by local governments, optionally
include pumps, alarms, sand
filters, and clarified
liquid effluent disposal means such as a septic
drain field, ponds,
natural stone fibre filter plants or peat
Septic systems are a type of On-Site Sewage Facility (OSSF).
25% of the population relies on septic tanks; this can include
small towns as well as rural areas
an example of a large city where many of the city's neighbourhoods
are still on separate septic systems). In Europe, they are generally
limited to rural areas only.
required to remove the irreducible solids which settle and gradually
fill the tank, reducing its efficiency. In most jurisdictions this
maintenance is required by law, yet often not enforced. Those who
ignore the requirement will eventually be faced with extremely costly
repairs when solids escape the tank and destroy the clarified liquid
effluent disposal means. A properly maintained system, on the other
hand, can last for decades or possibly even a lifetime. (Wikipedia;
search: “septic tank”).
exists to connect more than one house to one septic tank (e.g.
communal septic tank). (Source: MajiData).
Types of Onsite Toilet Facilities
Traditional pit latrine:
The simple pit latrine is the
cheapest and most basic form of improved sanitation available. It
consists of a square rectangular or circular pit dug into the
ground, covered by a hygienic cover slap or floor with a hole
through which excreta fall into the pit. Depending on user
preference a seat or squat hole with footrests can be installed,
and a lit supplied to cover the hole. The latrine is covered with a
shelter and fitted with a door, and is situated well away from
water sources and some distance from the house. The simple pit
latrine is most appropriate when water when water is not used for
anal cleansing. (Source: MajiData).
Traditional pit latrines usually
consist of a single pit covered by a slab with a drop hole and a
superstructure. The slab may be made of wood (sometimes covered
with mud) or reinforced concrete. The superstructure provides
shelter and privacy for the user. Basic improvements include a
hygienic self-draining floor made of smooth, durable material and
with raised foot rests; a tight-fitting lid that covers the drop
hole, to reduce smells and keep insects out of the pit; a floor
raised above ground level to prevent flooding; an adequately lined
pit, to prevent the pit collapsing (e.g. when the soil is
unstable); and an adequate foundation, to prevent damage of the
slab and superstructure (WHO 2003).If a latrine is a dry pit it
will not penetrate the water table. If the pit is wet, then
the water table is at risk (Source: World Plumbing Council
Working Group 2008). It is recognised that although not ideal,
a pit latrine allows for safer and more hygienic disposal of human
waste than open defecation (World Plumbing Council Working Group
2008).A pit latrine is not suitable where there are high population
densities (Source: World Plumbing Council Working Group 2008;
Pit Latrine (IP) (air-vent, proper superstructure): A
top-structure over a pit. The pit may be lined (recommended where
emptying is required), or unlined where soil conditions allow. The
improved pit latrine is seen as the basic sanitation facility people
in Kenya should have access to. (Source: MajiData).
8.3Pit latrine with a
with slab is
a dry pit latrine that uses a hole in the ground to collect the
excreta and a squatting slab or platform that is firmly supported on
all sides, easy to clean and raised above the surrounding ground
level to prevent surface water from entering the pit. The platform
has a squatting hole, or is fitted with a seat. (Source:
top-structure over a pit. The pit is vented by a pipe over which a
fly-screen is fixed. The pit may be lined (recommended where
emptying is required), or unlined where soil conditions allow. It
also can be constructed as a double pit system.
dry toilet into which carbon-rich material (vegetable wastes, straw,
grass, sawdust, ash) are added to the excreta and special conditions
maintained to produce inoffensive compost. A composting latrine may
or may not have a urine separation device. (Source:
Diversion (UD) Toilet: A single top-structure over a sealed
container, which could be one of two chambers side by side (as for
the VIDP), with access for the removal of decomposed waste. A vent
pipe may be installed to encourage drying of the waste.
process of separating urine from faeces at
the time of using toilet (at the source). Mixing of urine with faeces
is the main cause of bad odours and flies. Separated feces dry
quickly, especially if regular soil, ash, leaves or other bulking
agents such as, saw-dust is used. Drying out process further reduces
odour, flies and also avoids contamination. Urine is generally
pathogen-free and by mixing with water it can be readily used as a
fertilizer for both edible and non-edible plants. Separated faeces
along with other covering material such as, soil, leaves, etc. can be
placed in a compost pile to have it decomposed and completely
pathogen free. Once it is composted, it can be used as household
fertilizer as well. Another major advantage of urine diversion is
that it dramatically reduces size of materials in toilet and makes
the whole composting
system very easily manageable. (Source:
Wikipedia, search; “urine diversion”).
a facetious name
for the use of plastic
bags for defecation,
which are then thrown into ditches, on the roadside, or simply as far
away as possible.
toilets are particularly associated
with slums surrounding Nairobi, Kenya,
According to a report from the United
Nations Development Programme launched
in Cape Town on November 9, 2006, "two in three people [in
Kibera] identify the flying toilet as the primary mode of excreta
disposal available to them." (Source:
Wikipedia; search “flying toilet”).
defecation: No facilities
or bush or field includes
defecation in the bush or field or ditch; excreta deposited on the
ground and covered with a layer of earth (cat method); excreta
wrapped and thrown into garbage; and defecation into surface water
(drainage channel, beach, river, stream or sea). (Source:
Is one of many biomass energy
sources, which include anything that was once alive and that can
generate energy (except for fossil fuels, which are not renewable).
In addition to direct use of wood and charcoal, biomass energy
sources include ethanol and biodiesel. But these forms require
considerably more investment, advanced technology, and/or resources
than basic bio-digesters provide. Ethanol, for example, requires
advanced technology, whereas biodiesel, although relatively easy to
produce, requires the availability of plant oil. Biogas technology
simply formalizes the natural decomposition process.
fuel derived from the decay of organic matter, as the mixture of
methane and carbon dioxide produced by the bacterial decomposition
of sewage, manure, garbage or plant crops. (Source:
Biogas latrine (bio-digester):
a biogas plant the waste undergoes anaerobic fermentation which
kills practically all bacteria and worms and allows the slurry to
be used as a fertilizer for vegetable cultivation. After a
retention time of 20-30 days the slurry is odourless and therefore
does not attract flies. The methane gas produced in the
fermentation process can be used for cooking or lighting. These
advantages make the biogas latrine a favourable option for waste
treatment in educational institutions and hospitals.
digester consists of one or more airtight reservoirs into which
suitable feedstock- cow dung, human waste, abattoir waste-is
placed, either in batches or by continuous feed. Small-scale
digesters for household use are commonly made of concrete, bricks,
metal, fiberglass or plastic. Larger commercial biogas digesters
are made mainly of bricks, mortar and steel.
Digestion is accomplished in two general stages. First, acidogenic
bacteria turn biomass into volatile fatty acids and acetic acid. Then
methanogenic bacteria metabolize these compounds into a combination
of methane-rich gas and an odourless phosphorus- and nitrogen-laden
slurry, which makes excellent fertilizer. Depending on temperature
and moisture content, it takes about 6-25 days to fully process a
batch, according to a fact sheet from WASTE, a development NGO based
in the Netherlands. Simpler digesters take longer. The end product
is about 60-70% methane and 20-30% C[C.sub.2], with small amounts of
hydrogen sulphide and other impurities. The gas can be connected to a
household stove for cooking, to a light fixture with a gauze mantle
for lighting, or to other appliances with simple natural gas
plumbing; it burns like liquefied petroleum gas.
It takes 1-2 cows, 5-8 pigs, or 4 adult humans to supply adequate
daily feedstock for a single-household bio-digester, according to a
UNDP--Global Environment Facility fact sheet. The daily input of dung
and urine from a single cow produces 1-2 kilowatt-hours of
electricity or 8-9 kilowatt-hours of heat. Over a year, this is just
about enough to run a refrigerator. In most African applications, a
household biogas installation provides sufficient energy for cooking
and some lighting. (Source:
List of Abbreviations
AWSB: Athi Water Services Board
CWSB: Coast Water Services Board
and Agriculture Organisation (UN)
International Cooperation (Gesellschaft für Internationale
IDP: Internally displaced person
Demographic and Health Survey (KNBS)
National Bureau of Statistics
per capita per day
income area (urban)
LVNWSB: Lake Victoria North Water Services Board
LVSWSB: Lake Victoria South Water Services Board
MDGs: Millennium Development Goals
MoPHS: Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation
MWI: Ministry of Water and Irrigation
NGO: Non-governmental organisation
NZOWASCO: Nzoia Water Services Company
RVWSB: Rift Valley Water Services Board
NWSB: Northern Water Services Board
TAWSB: Tanathi Water Services Board
TWSB: Tana Water Services Board
Improved Pit latrine
Services Regulatory Board
WSS: Water supply and sanitation
WWSC: Western Water and Sewerage Company
WSTF: Water Services Trust Fund
€ 1.00 = KSh 103 (Average exchange
rate January 2009 - August 2010)
(August 2010) 2009 Kenya
Population and Housing Census, Volume I A; Population by
Administrative Units, Kenya
national Bureau of Statistics, Nairobi, Kenya.
Rain, D.R. and Ratcliffe, M.R. (June 15, 2001) Population
Density vs. Urban Population: Comparative GIS Studies in China,
India, and the United States, Population
Division, U. S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. , United States.
of Lands (undated ) Draft
National Land Policy,
National Land Policy Secretariat, P. O. Box 45025, Nairobi, Kenya.
Odhiambo, E.A. and Ndilinge, B. M.
(2005?) Census Cartography; The Kenyan Experience. Ministry of
Planning and National Development, Department of Central Bureau of
Statistics, P.O. Box 30266-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.